Global oil demand to average 92 million b/d in 2014
Crude oil is a mineral oil consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons of natural origin, yellow to black in color, of variable specific gravity and viscosity. Crude oil type has a unique composition and is a complex mixture containing many thousands of hydrocarbon molecules of different shapes and sizes.
Crude oil varies radically in its properties, namely specific gravity and viscosity. Depending on the chemical nature of its chief constituents, crude oil is classified as paraffin base, asphaltic base, or mixed base.
A mixture of hydrocarbons existing in the liquid state found in natural underground reservoirs often associated with gas. A naturally occurring, oily, flammable liquid composed principally of hydrocarbons. Crude oil is occasionally found in springs or pools but usually is produced from wells drilled beneath the earth's surface.
Crude oil is the mixture of petroleum liquids and gases (including impurities such as (sulphur) that is pumped out of the ground by oil wells.
Types of Crude Oil
The petroleum industry often characterizes crude oils according to their geographical source. Oils from different geographical areas have unique properties; they can vary in consistency from a light volatile fluid to a semi-solid. Classification of crude oil types by geographical source is generally not a useful classification scheme for response personnel because they offer little information about general toxicity, physical state, and changes that occur with time and weathering. These characteristics are primary considerations in oil spill response. The classification scheme provided below is more useful in a response scenario. Class A: Light, Volatile Oils . These oils are highly fluid, often clear, spread rapidly on solid or water surfaces, have a strong odor, a high evaporation rate, and are usually flammable. They penetrate porous surfaces such as dirt and sand, and may be persistent in such a matrix. They do not tend to adhere to surfaces; flushing with water generally removes them. Class A oils may be highly toxic to humans, fish, and other biota. Most refined products and many of the highest quality light crudes can be included in this class.
Class B: Non-Sticky Oils . These oils have a waxy or oily feel. Class B oils are less toxic and adhere more firmly to surfaces than Class A oils, although they can be removed from surfaces by vigorous flushing. As temperatures rise, their tendency to penetrate porous substrates increases and they can be persistent. Evaporation of volatiles may lead to a Class C or D residue. Medium to heavy paraffin-based oils fall into this class.
Class C: Heavy, Sticky Oils . Class C oils are characteristically viscous, sticky or tarry, and brown or black. Flushing with water will not readily remove this material from surfaces, but the oil does not readily penetrate porous surfaces. The density of Class C oils may be near that of water and they often sink. Weathering or evaporation of volatiles may produce solid or tarry Class D oil. Toxicity is low, but wildlife can be smothered or drowned when contaminated. This class includes residual fuel oils and medium to heavy crudes.
Class D: Nonfluid Oils . Class D oils are relatively non-toxic, do not penetrate porous substrates, and are usually black or dark brown in color. When heated, Class D oils may melt and coat surfaces making cleanup very difficult. Residual oils, heavy crude oils, some high paraffin oils, and some weathered oils fall into this class. These classifications are dynamic for spilled oils; weather conditions and water temperature greatly influence the behavior of oil and refined petroleum products in the environment. For example, as volatiles evaporate from a Class B oil, it may become a Class C oil. If a significant temperature drop occurs (e.g., at night), a Class C oil may solidify and resemble a Class D oil. Upon warming, the Class D oil may revert back to a Class C oil. The oil industry classifies "crude" by the location of its origin (e.g., "West Texas Intermediate, WTI" or "Brent") and often by its relative weight ( API gravity ) or viscosity ("light", "intermediate" or "heavy"); refiners may also refer to it as "sweet", which means it contains relatively little sulfur , or as "sour", which means it contains substantial amounts of sulfur and requires more refining in order to meet current product specifications.
"We can provide either buyers and or suppliers of the following products, depending on availability , pricing and procedures. D2, JP54,D6, MAZUT ,USLD, MDO and LNG as well as Crude oil such as, Bonnie , Saudi , Kuwati and Basra Light Crude as well."